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This power base is reflected by job-related skills, accurate decisions, correct perception of reality, problem-solving competence, as well as a rational and reliable judgment by the leader, resulting in the perception of competence on the part of the employees French and Raven, ; Hinkin and Schriesheim, In addition to organizational citizenship behavior e.

Empirically distinct from organizational commitment Hallberg and Schaufeli,we explore a fifth outcome work engagement, which is an indicator of occupational wellbeing.

As power use represents an essential element of leadership Clements and Washbush,a decisive question arises about whether leaders in their function as power holders use their power to serve the greater good or abuse it for selfish ends.

leadership behavior definition

To test hypotheses H1a-e, we conducted ordinary least squares OLS regressions, predicting the diverse follower outcomes of ethical leadership.

H6d: personal power mediates the interactive effect of ethical leadership and an employee's moral identity on job satisfaction.

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Moral scandals from top managers of global companies Colvin, have highlighted the significance of power holders' ethical behavior for economic success, prompting both practitioners and academics to focus on the ethical dimension of leadership Brown et al.

Accordingly, French and Raven define five bases of power, indicating different forms in which power can be used by leaders to influence followers' behavior and outcomes.

Effective leadership behavior: what we know and what questions need more attention

Furthermore, personal power is positively associated with commitment and compliance since it leads to comparatively high personal involvement, explaining enhanced compliance and engagement that goes beyond what is necessary Bachman et al. Referent power describes the ability to convey feelings of personal acceptance and respect to subordinates, and it is based on followers' identification with and attraction to their leader, as indicated by followers' admiration and respect for a leader and by perceiving him or her as a role model French and Raven, As power use represents an essential element of leadership Clements and Washbush, , a decisive question arises about whether leaders in their function as power holders use their power to serve the greater good or abuse it for selfish ends. However, the leader-follower relationship can also be captured in terms of relational attachments, since these relationship partners interact in close proximity and the attachment figure i. Empirical evidence indicates that personality generally influences the perception of power bases Lord et al. Empirically distinct from organizational commitment Hallberg and Schaufeli, , we explore a fifth outcome work engagement, which is an indicator of occupational wellbeing. The separate questionnaires were matched on basis of a code, ensuring anonymity and confidentiality. H1d: ethical leadership is positively related to job satisfaction. Consequently, ethical leadership as a specific form of power use should be associated with followers' perceptions of distinct corresponding power bases 1. Core components of ethical leadership behavior consists of showing respect, protecting employees' interests and offering individually considerate support Brown et al. In addition to organizational citizenship behavior e. The control for an employee's education level was based on findings suggesting that education is an important determinant of moral competence and moral judgment e.

Participants rated all measures on seven-point Likert-scales ranging from one strongly disagree to seven strongly agree. From the perspective of social influence and power, the socially responsible use of power is a key element of ethical leadership De Hoogh and Den Hartog,

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This procedure ought to add a new defining element to the conceptualization of ethical leadership by explicating power use within the framework of ethical leadership. Thus, an employee, who perceives a higher importance of moral behavior due to his or her highly developed moral identity, may attribute more referent power to an ethical leader compared to an employee with a rather low moral identity. The mechanisms of paying attention to, measuring and controlling on a regular basis as well as deliberate role modelling, teaching and coaching did have some relevance. Empirical evidence suggests that the dispositional inclination to focus on morals van Gils et al. We assume that also ethical leadership behavior is related to attributing specific corresponding power bases to a leader. Although Brown et al. Finally, we follow the call for a deepened understanding of the employees' active role in the ethical leadership process Den Hartog, Similarly, findings confirm the moderating role of moral identity in processing ethical leadership behavior in relation to customer-related outcomes, such as purchasing intentions van Quaquebeke et al. Dedication implies strong work involvement, coinciding with a sense of significance and feelings of enthusiasm, pride, and inspiration. Hence, we propose: H5: an employee's moral identity moderates the relationship between ethical leadership and the attribution of personal power to a leader, such that ethical leadership has a stronger positive impact on the attribution of personal power to a leader for employees with a higher moral identity as compared to those with a lower moral identity. Vigor refers to a high amount of energy and mental resilience at work, and an investment of effort and persistence when considering obstacles.
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(PDF) Yukl, Gary. Leadership in Organizations